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Kerr v. Hickenlooper

United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit

June 3, 2016

ANDY KERR, Colorado State Representative; NORMA V. ANDERSON JANE M. BARNES, member Jefferson County Board of Education; ELAINE GANTZ BERMAN, member State Board of Education; ALEXANDER E. BRACKEN; WILLIAM K. BREGAR, member Pueblo District 70 Board of Education; BOB BRIGGS, Westminster City Councilman; BRUCE W. BRODERIUS, member Weld County District 6 Board of Education; TRUDY B. BROWN; JOHN C. BUECHNER, Ph.D., Lafayette City Councilman; STEPHEN A. BURKHOLDER; RICHARD L. BYYNY, M.D.; LOIS COURT, Colorado State Representative; THERESA L. CRATER; ROBIN CROSSAN, member Steamboat Springs RE-2 Board of Education; RICHARD E. FERDINANDSEN; STEPHANIE GARCIA, member Pueblo City Board of Education; KRISTI HARGROVE; DICKEY LEE HULLINGHORST, Colorado State Representative; NANCY JACKSON, Arapahoe County Commissioner; WILLIAM G. KAUFMAN; CLAIRE LEVY, Colorado State Representative; MARGARET (MOLLY) MARKERT, Aurora City Councilwoman; MEGAN J. MASTEN; MICHAEL MERRIFIELD; MARCELLA (MARCIE) L. MORRISON; JOHN P. MORSE, Colorado State Senator PAT NOONAN; BEN PEARLMAN, Boulder County Commissioner; WALLACE PULLIAM; PAUL WEISSMANN; JOSEPH W. WHITE, Plaintiffs - Appellees,
v.
JOHN HICKENLOOPER, Governor of Colorado, in his official capacity, Defendant-Appellant.
v.
D’ARCY W. STRAUB; INDEPENDENCE INSTITUTE; CATO INSTITUTE; SEN. KEVIN LUNDBERG; REP. JERRY SONNENBERG; REP. JUSTIN EVERETT; REP. SPENCER SWALM; REP. JANAK JOSHI; REP. PERRY BUCK; SEN. TED HARVEY; SEN. KENT LAMBERT; SEN. MARK SCHEFFEL; SEN. KEVIN GRANTHAM; SEN VICKI MARBLE; SEN. RANDY BAUMGARDNER; REP. DAN NORDBERG; REP. FRANK MCNULTY; REP. JARED WRIGHT; REP. CHRIS HOLBERT; REP. KEVIN PRIOLA; SEN. SCOTT RENFROE; SEN. BILL CADMAN; COLORADO UNION OF TAXPAYERS FOUNDATION; NATIONAL FEDERATION OF INDEPENDENT BUSINESS; TABOR FOUNDATION; AMERICAN LEGISLATIVE EXCHANGE COUNCIL; NATIONAL TAXPAYERS UNION; AMERICANS FOR TAX REFORM; CITIZENS IN CHARGE; HOWARD JARVIS TAXPAYERS ASSOCIATION; CITIZENS FOR LIMITED TAXATION; GOLDWATER INSTITUTE; FREEDOM CENTER OF MISSOURI; CASCADE POLICY INSTITUTE; PELICAN INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC POLICY; TAX FOUNDATION OF HAWAII; WISCONSIN INSTITUTE FOR LAW & LIBERTY; WASHINGTON POLICY CENTER; OKLAHOMA COUNCIL FOR PUBLIC AFFAIRS; HOWARD JARVIS TAXPAYERS FOUNDATION; FREEDOM CENTER OF MISSOURI; FREEDOM FOUNDATION; GOLDWATER INSTITUTE; 1851 CENTER FOR CONSTITUTIONAL LAW; COLORADO CHAPTER OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS; COLORADO NONPROFIT ASSOCIATION; COLORADO GENERAL ASSEMBLY; BELL POLICY CENTER; COLORADO FISCAL INSTITUTE; THE CENTER ON BUDGET AND POLICY PRIORITIES; COLORADO PARENT TEACHER ASSOCIATION; ERWIN CHEMERINSKY; HANS LINDE; WILLIAM MARSHALL; GENE NICHOL; WILLIAM WIECEK; COLORADO ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL BOARDS; COLORADO ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL EXECUTIVES; CENTER ON BUDGET AND POLICY PRIORITIES; DAVID BALMER; JOHN COOKE; LARRY CROWDER; OWEN HILL; BETH MARTINEZ HUMENIK; TIM NEVILLE; ELLEN ROBERTS; RAY SCOTT; LAURA WOODS; JON BECKER; J. PAUL BROWN; KATHLEEN CONTI; DON CORAM; BRIAN DELGROSSO; TIM DORE; STEPHEN HUMPHREY; GORDON KLINGENSCHMITT; LOIS LANDFRAF; POLLY LAWRENCE; PAUL LUNDEEN; PATRICK NEVILLE; BOB RANKIN; KIM RANSOM; CATHERINE ROUPE; LORI SAINE; LANG SIAS; DAN THURLOW; YEULIN V. WILLETT; JAMES WILSON; JOANN WINDHOLZ; BOB GARDNER; MIKE KOPP; ANDY MCELHANY; STATE OF TEXAS; STATE OF IDAHO; STATE OF INDIANA; STATE OF MICHIGAN; CENTER FOR CONSTITUTIONAL JURISPRUDENCE, Amici Curiae.

         Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of Colorado (D.C. No. 1:11-CV-01350-RM-NYW)

          Frederick R. Yarger (William Allen, Kathleen Spalding, Stephanie Lindquist Scoville, Matthew D. Grove, Megan Paris Rundlet, and Jonathan P. Fero, Office of the Attorney General for the State of Colorado, and Daniel D. Domenico, Kittredge LLC, with him on the briefs), Office of the Attorney General for the State of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, for Defendant-Appellant.

          David E. Skaggs (Lino S. Lipinsky de Orlov, Dentons U.S. LLP, Denver, Colorado, John A. Herrick, Geoffrey Williamson, Carrie E. Johnson, Sarah M. Clark, Michael F. Feeley, Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck, LLP, Denver, Colorado, Michael L. Bender, Perkins Coie, LLP, Denver, Colorado; Herbert Lawrence Fenster, Covington & Burling LLP, Washington, D.C., with him on the briefs), for the Plaintiffs-Appellees.

          Richard A. Westfall, Hale Westfall, LLP, Denver, Colorado, and Karen R. Harned and Luke A. Wake, NFIB Small Business Legal Center, Washington, D.C., filed an amicus curiae brief for National Federation of Independant Business; Tabor Foundation; American Legislative Exchange Council; National Taxpayers Union; Americans for Tax Reform; Citizens in Charge; Howard Jarvis Taxpayers Association; Citizens for Limited Taxation; Goldwater Institute; Freedom Center of Missouri; Cascade Policy Institute; Pelican Institute; Institute for Public Policy; Tax Foundation of Hawaii; Wisconsin Institute for Law and Liberty; Washington Policy Center on behalf of Defendant-Appellant.

          Matthew J. Douglas, Holly E. Sterrett, Paul W. Rodney, and Nathaniel J. Hake, Arnold & Porter, LLP, Denver, Colorado, filed an amicus curiae brief for the Bell Policy Center and the Colorado Fiscal Institute on behalf of Plaintiffs-Appellees.

          Ilya Shapiro, Cato Institute, Washington, D.C., filed an amicus curiae brief for Cato Institute on behalf of Defendant-Appellant.

          Anthony J. Bruno, Milton A. Miller, and Jacquelynn K.M. Levien, Latham & Watkins, LLP, Los Angeles, California, and John C. Eastman, Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence, Orange, California, filed an amicus curiae brief for the Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence on behalf of Defendant-Appellant.

          Andrew M. Low, Emily L. Droll, and John M. Bowlin, Davis Graham & Stubbs, LLP, Denver, Colorado, filed an amicus curiae brief for Colorado Association of School Executives and Colorado Association of School Boards on behalf of Plaintiffs-Appellees.

          Harold A. Haddon and Laura G. Kastetter, Haddon Morgan and Foreman, P.C., Denver, Colorado, filed an amicus curiae brief for Colorado Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Colorado Nonprofit Association on behalf of Plaintiffs-Appellees.

          Stephen G. Masciocchi and Maureen Reidy Witt, Holland & Hart, LLP, Denver, Colorado, and Greenwood Village, Colorado, filed an amicus curiae brief for the Colorado General Assembly on behalf of Plaintiffs-Appellees.

          Catherine C. Engberg, Shute Mihaly & Weinberger, LLP, San Francisco, California, filed an amicus curiae brief for the Colorado Parent Teacher Association on behalf of Plaintiffs-Appellees.

          Jeffrey W. McCoy and Steven J. Lechner, Mountain States Legal Foundation, Lakewood, Colorado, filed an amicus curiae brief for Colorado Union of Taxpayers Foundation, Andy McElhany, Bill Cadman, Bob Gardner, Bob Rankin, Brian DelGrosso, Catherine Roupe, Chris Holbert, Dan Nordberg, Dan Thurlow, David Balmer, Don Coram, Ellen Roberts, Frank McNulty, Gordon Klingenschmitt, J. Paul Brown, James Wilson, Janak Joshi, Jerry Sonnenberg, John Cooke, Jon Becker, Justin Everett, Kathleen Conti, Kent Lambert, Kevin Grantham, Kevin Lundberg, Kevin Priola, Kim Ransom, Laura Woods, Lang Sias, Larry Crowder, Lois Landfraf, Lori Saine, Mark Scheffel, Mike Kopp, Owen Hill, Patrick Neville, Paul Lundeen, Perry Buck, Polly Lawrence, Randy Baumgardner, Ray Scott, Scott Renfroe, Spencer Swalm, Stephen Humphrey, Ted Harvey Tim Dore, Tim Neville, Vicki Marble, Yeulin V. Willett, Beth Martinez Humenik, and JoAnn Windholz, on behalf of Defendant-Appellant.

          David Kopel, Independence Institute, Denver, Colorado, filed an amicus curiae brief for Independence Institute on behalf of Defendant-Appellant.

          Ken Paxton, Attorney General of Texas, Charles E. Roy, First Assistant Attorney General, Scott A. Keller, Solicitor General, J. Campbell Barker, Deputy Solicitor General, Autumn Hamit Patterson, Assistant Attorney General, Office of the Attorney General for the State of Texas, Austin, Texas, and Lawrence G. Wasden, Attorney General of Idaho, Boise, Idaho, Gregory F. Zoeller, Attorney General of Indiana, Indianapolis, Indiana, and Bill Schuette, Attorney General of Michigan, Lansing, Michigan, filed an amicus curiae brief for the State of Idaho, State of Indiana, State of Michigan, and State of Texas on behalf of Defendant-Appellant.

          Joseph R. Guerra and Kathleen Mueller, Sidley Austin, LLP, Washington, D.C., filed an amicus curiae brief for The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities on behalf of Plaintiffs-Appellees.

          D'Arcy W. Straub, Littleton, Colorado, filed an amicus curiae brief for D'Arcy W. Straub on behalf of Defendant-Appellant.

          Melissa Hart, University of Colorado School of Law, Boulder, Colorado, filed an amicus curiae brief for Erwin Chemerinsky, Gene Nichol, Hans Linde, William Marshall, ...


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